CCP is striving to play an active role at the international level because anti-competitive practices stemming from cross-borders may also affect welfare of Pakistani citizens. The Commission actively participate in activities of the International Competition Network, OECD, WIPO, IBA and UNCTAD. Apart from being represented at various conferences and workshops (including tele-conferences for training purposes) organised by these bodies, groups of CCP officers participated in the training specifically organized by the OECD and Turkish Competition Agency for CCP. An overview of the international forums and organizations where CCP will continue to participate is provided below.1. United Nations Commission on Trade and Development
Established in 1964, UNCTAD promotes the development-friendly integration of developing countries into the world economy. UNCTAD has progressively evolved into an authoritative knowledge-based institution whose work aims to help shape current policy debates and thinking on development, with a particular focus on ensuring that domestic policies and international actions are mutually supportive in bringing about sustainable development.
The organization works to fulfill this mandate by carrying out three key functions:
- It functions as a forum for intergovernmental deliberations, supported by discussions with experts and exchanges of experience, aimed at consensus building.
- It undertakes research, policy analysis and data collection for the debates of government representatives and experts.
- It provides technical assistance tailored to the specific requirements of developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the least developed countries and of economies in transition. When appropriate, UNCTAD cooperates with other organizations and donor countries in the delivery of technical assistance.
In performing its functions, the secretariat works together with member Governments and interacts with organizations of the United Nations system and regional commissions, as well as with governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, including trade and industry associations, research institutes and universities worldwide.
CCP will continue to work with UNCTAD towards its commitment to assist developing countries to achieve effective competition and to develop their own competition culture through competitive and fair overseas markets and improved market access.
CCP intends to deepen its relationship with UNCTAD through training programs and conferences targeted towards capacity building.
(For further information on the competition related activities of UNCTAD visit www.unctad.org
).2. International Competition Network (ICN)
International Competition Network (ICN) is a competition agencies’ forum devoted exclusively to competition law enforcement. The ICN aims to find solutions to the challenges emanating from globalization i.e., competition law is national, whereas markets are being inter-dependent, crossing borders and are becoming increasingly global. ICN focuses on improving collaboration and cooperation between competition law enforcement agencies to improve competition law enforcement and administration in the global marketplace to benefit consumers and businesses at large.
The ICN provides antitrust agencies from developed and developing countries with a focused network for addressing practical antitrust enforcement and policy issues of common concern. It facilitates procedural and substantive convergence in antitrust enforcement through a results-oriented agenda and informal, project-driven organization. The ICN brings international antitrust enforcement into the 21st century. By enhancing convergence and cooperation, the ICN promotes more efficient and effective antitrust enforcement worldwide.
(For more information about the ICN and resources relating to Pakistan visit: www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.org
)3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has 30 member countries and has a relationship with more than 70 non-member countries, NGOs and civil society organizations, thus it has a global reach.
The OECD plays a prominent role in fostering good governance in the public service and in corporate activity. It helps governments to ensure the responsiveness of key economic areas with sectoral monitoring. By working on emerging issues and identifying policies, it helps policy-makers adopt strategic solutions. It conducts individual country surveys and reviews of member countries’ policies particularly sectoral regulatory policies.
OECD produces internationally agreed instruments, decisions and recommendations to promote rules in areas where multilateral agreement is necessary for individual countries to make progress in a globalised economy. Dialogue, consensus and peer reviews exert pressure on member countries to abide by the (non-binding) rules.
OECD work on competition law and policy encourages decision-makers in government to tackle anti-competitive practices and regulations and promotes market-oriented reform throughout the world. It is based on the recognition that a well-designed competition law, effective law enforcement and competition-based economic reform promote increased efficiency, economic growth and employment for the benefit of all.
Another activity of the OECD is the establishment of the ‘Global Competition Forum’ in the form of a roundtable on introducing competition in the areas of economic activities particularly the into regulated sectors. MCA also participated in the OECD Global Forum on competition and the OECD Joint Forum on Trade and Competition.
For decadesmany years, the Competition Committee has remained the leading forum for regular, focused, policy dialogue among the world's leading competition officials. This dialogue has built mutual understanding and had substantial benefits, such as means of conflict avoidance and co-operation that have been used successfully by Members and non-Members. The Competition Committee has also identified voluntary "best practices" and created substantial analytical convergence among developed countries.
For more than a decade, the OECD's Members and Secretariat have been co-operating on competition law and policy matters with a wide variety of non-Members. Until now, this co-operation has consisted largely of regular capacity building activities and conferences. With the advent of the Global Forum on Competition, OECD co-operation with non-Members has expanded to include in-depth "OECD-style" dialogue with an increased number of economies with which OECD Members have a strong interest in a common agenda. This Forum does not replicate the universality of other institutions (or address trade issues); rather, it creates an expanded network of high-level officials from 55 or more economies who meet regularly to share experiences on competition issues.
The OECD's Competition Committee is the world's premier source of policy analysis and advice to governments on how best to harness market forces in the interest of greater global economic efficiency and prosperity. Bringing together the leaders of the world's major competition authorities, the Committee is the chief international forum on important competition policy issues.
Members of the Committee include senior representatives from the competition authorities in OECD countries, plus observers from a number of non-OECD countries. Even more countries participate through the Global Forum on Competition. Business and consumer representatives also participate in some Committee and Global Forum activities.
The Committee is supported in its mission by the Competition Division. The role of the Division is to provide the Committee with analytical support and promote its reform platform around the globe. To this end, the Division prepares analytical papers, sector studies and policy recommendations, and offers hands-on support to governments seeking to strengthen their national competition frameworks.
- Centre for Co-operation with Non-Members
The Centre for Co-operation with Non-Members fosters and manages the OECD's dialogue with transition and emerging market economies and some developing countries, sharing institutional and policy options and promoting participation in OECD Committees and adherence to OECD standards and instruments.
CCP will continue to participate in the discussion forums organized by the OECD, namely:
- Global Competition Forum; and
- Joint Forum on Trade and Competition
CCP intends to join policy committees of the OECD as a non-member participant. Work of the OECD revolves around the fact that well-designed competition law, effective law enforcement and competition-based economic reforms promote efficiency, economic growth and employment for the benefit of all. OECD’s work on competition law encourages decision-makers to tackle anti-competitive practices, and promotes market-oriented reform throughout the world.
(For more information on competition policy work of the OECD visit: www.oecd.org
).4. The World Trade Organization (WTO)
Considering the interaction between trade and competition policy, the WTO established a Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy (WGTCP) at Singapore Ministerial Conference in December 1996 to consider issues relating to the interaction of these two policy fields.
The WTO’s work generally focused on the:
- relationship between the objectives, principles, concepts, scope and instruments of trade and competition policy;
- stocktaking and analysis of existing instruments, standards and activities for trade and competition policy, including experience in their application; and
- interaction between trade and competition policy.
WTO’s Doha Declaration, 2001 stated interaction between Trade and Competition policy 23-
Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to enhance the contribution of competition policy to international trade and development, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 24, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations. 24-
We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.25-
In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy will focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness, and provisions on hardcore cartels; modalities for voluntary cooperation; and support for progressive reinforcement of competition institutions in developing countries through capacity building. Full account shall be taken of the needs of developing and least-developed country participants and appropriate flexibility provided to address them.
For further information on the WTO, competition policy and Pakistan’s submissions visit: www.wto.org